knowledge harvesting

Article – Knowledge Harvesting
Authors – Nikul Giniwala , Jun Wang, Kuldip Kaur, Sunil Gayam, Laveena Pais

In this era, Knowledge Management has become a vital tool for many organizations around the world and a key component of knowledge management is Knowledge Harvesting. Is used for capturing the expertise of articles, its authors and knowledge contributors via suggestion, it also helps in reducing the loss of knowledge and makes sure the continuity of knowledge (Salvendy & Smith, 2007), Liebowitz (2009) states that knowledge harvesting is one of the method associated for organizational improvement where as Keyes (2006) states that it covers a variety of methodology that focus to retrieve knowledge assets from various forms of tacit knowledge held within an organization. Liu, Rama and Becerra-Fernandez (2007) define knowledge harvesting is an integrated set of processes where in the tacit knowledge of a topic expert is converted into specific, actionable know-how that can be transferred to novices via technology and personal communication.

Corporate initiatives in knowledge management
In context of escalating importance of knowledge resources the primary function of the company is often assumed to create conditions in which individuals can integrate specialist knowledge in order to produce goods and services of high value.Knowledge is said to be a social construct and cannot be managed as physical assets.Knowledge produced by individuals reaches its full potential to create economic value when it becomes embedded in organizational routine (Thomas 2001).

Organization knowledge exists in two basic forms:
Tacit – experimental, spontaneous and communicated most efficiently in face to face collaboration
Explicit – codified knowledge

According to Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995), the process of translation of tacit or subjective knowledge into explicit or objective knowledge can be codified. Fig 2 explains a model of knowledge flow based on the exchange of tacit knowledge within a community. This transfer of knowledge to other communities requires clarification and accordingly knowledge is internalized and made tacit again through application. Information technology is part of essential infrastructure of the knowledge revolution, but is necessary and not sufficient. To leverage knowledge we need to enhance both thinking and information. The four key challenges involved in building such communities in business are Technical, Social, Management and Personal.

Harvesting Community Knowledge
This article addresses the challenges system designers may face when building a community information for a Latino community. In particular it also examines the goal of the community alliance to provide low and middle income Latino families with strategic information on jobs, business opportunities and cultural activities. One approach would be to apply social capital which helps to achieve a community information system that captures social relations from a community and generates returns for an individual. According to Lin, social networks generate the flow of information, identify social qualifications and promote public reinforcement.
The conceptive study of the present article conducted by Schindler and Eppler (2003, pp.219) describes and examines about the reasons for the amnesia of the project (i.e. no withholding an overview of the project) and presents an overview of the availability collection methods focused on projects and use lessons learned. Following this investigation, Article presents various key success factors for effective methods of debriefing. The risk of loss and knowledge to the end of a project is a serious problem for companies, especially in knowledge Industries such as pharmaceutical, financial engineering and high technology. Knowledge harvesting requires considerable knowledge of project management format, process improvement, Gauges and use. Various formats, Process steps and are able to use scenarios, Project-centred learning in a company. Without Guide of the management, however, these methods will be ineffective. Conditions for a systematic project learning discipline, motivation, debriefing skills, including and know-how on appropriate documentation formats.

A constant, conscious and systematic collection, Analysis and communication of project experience helps to understand the role of the knowledge management and its requirements in order to adjustment Project team and review the final report and its main functions. Schindler and Eppler (2003, pp.219).
The study cited by (Chaiang 2008) growing collection of scholarly publications and related documents it explains the frequency of the system design of structures of specific academic publications in the domain of scientists through a combination of practical knowledge society. This system provides a set of form-based system. In addition, it accelerates the collection of relevant documents by scientists for future researchers to create an accessible archive. Collected documents and publications, and personal contacts with other scientists, reference is to establish a highly effective personal domain research. The data collection process not only simple, but it also increases the visibility of individual academic work (Chiang 2008).

Process of Harvesting Knowledge:
First of all, it should be investigated what knowledge and information should be required for organization.
The knowledge should be appropriate and important. It should be useful for progress of organization organisation and also liable to be beneficial for future use. It should be clear and understandable to users who will be using this knowledge, so that this can be retained in such manner that users can understand and approach it easily. The next step is finding the experts whose knowledge should be captured. It is very crucial to extract right knowledge from right person. A good interviewer or information seeker can do this. So an expert consultant should be used as harvester. The next step is interview of expert whose knowledge is supposed to be captured. This interview should be well arranged and also there should be adequate sources to record the information provided. After gathering knowledge next step is to organize and present in such a manner that it could be easily accessible by the users. It can be reserved in a hard copy, database or company’s intranet, so that users can use and share it. It is also necessary to apply and evaluate this knowledge in organisation, whether the knowledge is used regularly and also users are getting value from it or not.

Knowledge Harvesting Key Benefit
Main purpose of harvesting knowledge is to detain the knowledge of experts and senior and use it according to situation. This knowledge can be used in many situations such as:
When an organisation wants to ‘know what it knows’. When knowledge and information are needed for a specific, clearly defined, purpose. To capture the knowledge of employees who are leaving the organisation or department. To gather knowledge to support a process of change or improvement. To kick-start a knowledge management programme by quickly generating a body of expert knowledge about a subject and making it available across the organisation. As an ongoing practice, as part of a wider knowledge management strategy (Robertson, 2005).

Knowledge Harvesting Model
Liu, Rama and Becerra-Fernandez (2007) divide this model into three phases.
The first phase of knowledge harvesting model is to elicit knowledge from experts. This is the most difficult and important activity in knowledge harvesting model, because the experts’ trust and motivation may influence their participation in knowledge harvesting and impact the successfulness in the program. After experts’ tacit knowledge and know-how is identified by organizations, the tacit knowledge of experts will be elicited, and captured and organized into knowledge database system.

The second phase is for novices to acquire knowledge which is elicited from experts and apply the same expert knowledge as the top performers.

The last phase is to evaluate this model,aAn evaluation process should be involved and continuous in order to keep the database up to date.

Knowledge Harvesting Key Challenge
The organization invests a knowledge management system should be accepted by employees, if not, it is time consuming, and will burn lots of money. How to encourage employees to share their knowledge within organizations is another challenge faced by the management of an organization.Wu, Zubair and Maly (2006) state that in harvesting social knowledge, identifying communities of common interest and identifying information leaders or domain experts are the two key challenges.

In the end, it can be said that knowledge harvesting is an integral part of an organization. Harvested knowledge can be used in many critical situations and it definitely helps in the progress of organization. There is need to capture knowledge as it also helps in examining the creation and mobilization of social capital and the dispersal of knowledge over distributed networks.

Reference List

Chaing,S 2008,’Design of a model of publication sharing and harvesting’, Electronic Library, vol.26,no.4,pp.582-593,(EBSCOhost)

Che-Hung Liu, Rama, D & Becerra-Fernandez, I 2007, ‘The Proposal of Conditions of Personal Engagement in Knowledge Harvesting’, e-Business Engineering, 24-26 October, p. 745-750

Clarke, T, Rollo, C, 2001, ‘ Corporate initiatives in knowledge management’, vol 43,pp 206-214 (Online Emerald)

Heath, J, 2003, ‘Harvesting and using corporate knowledge’, work study, Vol. 52, no. 4, pp 184-189 (online emerald).

http://www.library.nhs.uk/knowledgemanagement/ViewResource.aspx?resID=93815
Keyes, J, 2006, Knowledge Management, Business Intelligence, And Contect Management, no edition, Auerbach Publications, USA.

http://books.google.com.au/books?id=sZNka8aCo1UC&pg=PR19&dq=knowledge+harvesting&lr=&cd=17#v=onepage&q=knowledge%20harvesting&f=false

Lastra,S,2001, ‘Harvesting community knowledge’, Proceedings of the 34th annual Hawaii international conference, pp 9, (Online IEEE Xplore)

Liebowitz, J, 2009, Knowledge Retention, no edition, Auerbach Publications,USA
http://books.google.com.au/books?id=rciYtZsirzMC&pg=PR9&dq=knowledge+harvesting&lr=&cd=6#v=onepage&q=knowledge%20harvesting&f=false
Robertson, S. 2005, Knowledge harvesting, viewed 27 April 2010

Salvendy, G & Smith, MJ, 2007, Human Interface and Management of Information, no edition, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heildelberg, Germany.
http://books.google.com.au/books?id=8RcmycrSsyEC&pg=PA321&dq=knowledge+harvesting&cd=7#v=onepage&q=knowledge%20harvesting&f=false

Schindler, M, Eppler, M, 2003, ‘The Latino imaginary: dimension of community and identity’, pp 219 (Online IEEE Xplopre)

Schindler, M & Eppler, M 2003,’Harvesting project knowledge: a review of project learning methods and success factors’, International Journal of project management, vol.21,no.3,pp. 219-228,(Science Direct)

Wu, H, Zubair, M & Maly K 2006, ‘Harvesting social knowledge from folksonomies’, Proceedings of the seventeenth conference on Hypertext and hypermedia, p. 111-114

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